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It dropped six to eight inches within the silo. In April, Air Force representatives held the first in a series of town halls to let affected communities know what might be coming. After the war, the federal government awarded a contract to Convair for a missile that could deliver a 5,000-pound warhead to within 5,000 feet of any target 1,500 to 5,000 miles away. In November 2018, Barrasso, Wyoming Sen. Mike Enzi, and 22 other U.S. One Tuesday morning in July, the mission is to reinstall a Minuteman III at a missile silo in Pine Bluffs, Wyo. Some may balk at the idea of visiting a facility that once housed nuclear weapons, but Travis Beckwith, cultural resources manager with the bases 90th Civil Engineering Squadron, tells Smithsonian.com that the government will run environmental baseline surveys to ensure that the site is safe for visitors. The new START treaty allows the U.S. to retain a maximum of 1,550 nuclear warheads on alert, a total that includes the warheads on the 450 ICBMs Barrasso alluded to. Suddenly, everything in the silo goes dark. And in October 2010, a hardware failure at F.E. I dont ask any questions, but it seems important, says Winyun, 81, her white hair twisted in two braids in keeping with her Lakota heritage. A lot of this stuff is dated and old. (Tribune News Service) In a seemingly aimless, but determined drive, the small tour bus takes highways and dirt roads out to a place so barren, there likely isnt another human being for miles. Besides two heavily armored Humvees, equipped with ascending calibers of weaponry, its almost like a college dormitory. The proposed new ICBM, known as the Ground-Based Strategic Deterrent until the Air Force formally named it the Sentinel in April, will include improved rocket boosters, composite materials, and new guidance systems, according to the military. There are some very simplistic arguments against it. Younger people dont seem to realize these weapons pose the same existential threat to the world as global warming.. For instance, the missile field of F. E. Warren Air Force Base includes portions of western Nebraska, northern Colorado, and eastern Wyoming, an area of more than 12,000 square miles. Terms of Use Sometimes when a part fails, it can be found in military stock. We should not be trying to lure a nuclear attack against U.S. territory, says Tom Collina, director of policy at Ploughshares Fund, a San Francisco nonprofit that supports nuclear nonproliferation. Youd pass them driving to the movies with a date, or running to the grocery store, or dropping your kid off at a friends house. A Swiss Army knife when it comes to responsibility, Glaister keeps operations running according to plan, from clearing snowdrifts to fixing plumbing. Those key factorsinclude a sustained and vigorous U.S. nuclear weapons modernization program, strict compliance by Russia with its obligations and a true balance of nuclear capabilities between the two nations. The upshot was that the Air Force abandoned the racetrack for the dense pack. Public criticism by then becoming more strident, opponents dubbed the new idea the dunce pack. Formally called closely spaced basing, the idea was that concentrating MX missiles in a small area in hardened silos would require that an enemy launch several missiles to destroy them. The museum is open 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. weekdays. But then theres something different: Two tan metal structures, fenced in and containing warning signs that advise approaching vehicles of something their drivers already know. Warren AFB was transferred to the Air Force in 1947, and is the oldest continuously active base in that branch of the service. The Minuteman Missile remains an iconic weapon in the American nuclear arsenal. The tactics for strategic nuclear weapons gradually diverged between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. American forces went for smaller throw weight that could be delivered more accurately, while the Soviets built larger bombs. The men begin hauling out wrenches, lug nuts, harnesses, and winches from black duffel bags as another team above ground starts to roll back the 110-ton launch door overhead. The dizzying, decades-long undertaking, now in its first stages, promises to be one of the most complicated and expensive in military history. Air-, sea-, and land-based missiles make up the so-called nuclear triad. By the end of that week, the team stationed at Alpha-01 will have rotated out, and a new team like them will have moved in to assume their duties. Twice a year, said the site activations task force commander at F.E. The final decision over whether and how to replace Americas aging nuclear forces lies with Congress. Back inside the silo, it takes about 90 seconds before the lights flicker on and machines blink back to life. Initial work will begin in Wyoming missile fields in 2024. Once its pulled away, a team member dials combination codes into two inner lids to gain access. They signed contracts with the federal government to sell an acre or two of their land at market value for what was being called national defense. Then the new construction attracted laborers from all over the country, livening up the quiet little town. Air Force maintenance teams fix decades-old equipment. This proved extremely difficult to achieve, however. They need to get this ICBM back online. Just like fighter pilots, who painted nose cone art on their jets during wartime, missilers left indelible marks of their own within the missile alert facility, or capsule. One drawing in particular caught Simpsons eye during a recent walkthrough: a doodle of a pizza box with the words guaranteed in 30 minutes or lessa nod to the length of time it would take a Peacekeeper to reach its intended target across the pond. Warren Air Force Base In Wyoming. This includes missile silos in northeastern Colorado presently operated and maintained by F. E. Warren Air Force Base in Cheyenne. Nuclear tourism is something that has an increasing interest in the public, and its extremely important that we preserve that history, especially since the Peacekeeper was one of the factors that helped end the Cold War.. President Joe Biden came into office seeking to reduce the role of nuclear weapons in American policy. That was a call for an enormous leap in distance and accuracy. Details of South Dakota Nuclear-Missile Accident Released,Rapid City Journalvia Associated Press. In outer space, far from Winyuns view, a cone-shaped re-entry vehicle and the thermonuclear warhead inside would maneuver toward its target at around 15,000 m.p.h. This office is suspended in a grand circular bunker meant to withstand a nuclear blast. Currently, workers are restoring and reinstalling all of the equipment once housed inside Quebec-01 to make it look like it did when it was fully operational (sans missiles, of course). Visit the front line of the Cold War from the comfort of your digital device. All Rights Reserved. (LGM-118) missiles were brought on alert in modified . The Minuteman III goes into the launch tube in the middle of it all, pointing skyward, capable of delivering a nuclear strike to any spot on the planet in roughly 30 minutes. A map showing the locations of the ten missiles of the Delta Flight which were part of the 66th Strategic Missile Squadron, 44th Missile Wing. Being the group commander, Matsuo has to know everything there is to know, even outside her own responsibilities. This incident was similar to another that had occurred in 1998 at North Dakotas Minot AFB and Montanas Malmstrom AFB. Mullaney added that missile fratricide is well understood. When it opens to the public, the site will contain no traces of actual weaponry. Beginning in 1960, Atlas missiles were located in deep underground silos in ranching areas throughout southeast Wyoming, western Nebraska and northeastern Colorado. This idea was finally shelved. , The racetrack system was abandoned in favor of a rail garrison basing system, essentially the same principle as the racetrack, except the missiles would be placed on rail cars and shuttled around the commercial rail system in times of increased Cold War tensions to try to assure survivability. U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet. When it finally opens to the public, Quebec-01 will join a growing group of preserved missile sites, including the Ronald Reagan Minuteman Missile Site in North Dakota, the Minuteman Missile National Historic Site in South Dakota and the Missile Site Park in Weld County just outside of Greeley, Colorado. Normally, the only ones who travel through the heavily secured front gate are the members of theUnited States Air Forcethat live at Alpha-01 on and off throughout the year in a series of controlled deployments. 2023 TIME USA, LLC. The inside of the command console looks eerily similar to any military office space. Its all part of the job. The name is no longer heard around here, but with a new global arms race emerging, a comeback is more than possible. The museum opened in 1986 and is operated by the Arizona Aerospace Foundation. You have reached your limit of 4 free articles. Look closely at the machines and youll find names of manufacturers like Radio Corp. of America, defunct since 1987, and Hughes Aircraft Co., defunct since 1997. 2 Recreation Board, Indigenous People in Wyoming and the West, http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2010/10/power-failure-shuts-down-squadron-of-nuclear-missiles/65207/, http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2010/10/nuclear-fail-is-start-in-trouble/65265/, https://www.barrasso.senate.gov/public/index.cfm/2018/11/wyo-senators-urge-president-trump-to-consider-key-factors-in-review-of-u-s-russian-nuclear-treaty, https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/NewSTART, http://www.rerf.or.jp/general/qa_e/qa1.html, http://www.warren.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=4696, https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/command-and-control/, https://www.airforcetimes.com/news/2017/11/04/details-of-south-dakota-nuclear-missile-accident-released/, https://video.wyomingpbs.org/video/main-street-wyoming-ground-zero-wyoming/. So far, none have found nuclear contamination in the soil. The thinking goes that if the U.S. didnt have land-based missiles, Russia or China could simply launch an all-out attack on just six U.S. strategic targets: the seat of government in Washington, three nuclear-bomber bases (in North Dakota, Missouri, and Louisiana), and two nuclear-submarine ports (in Washington State and Georgia). There were multiple near misses during the Cold War, when the annihilation of much of the human race was averted thanks only to luck or the common sense of a low-level officer. But though the museum is open to the general public, Warren Air Force Base is not. Usually, these blast doors open electronically, and there is a missile control area that operates the silos. The sounds and smells you never forget.. One of the problems with the Minuteman was that the military could not be absolutely sure they would work when fired from a silo. However, with the steel, the concrete silos have survived the tests. They were also located 170 feet underground. In contrast, the Minuteman III missile is 60 feet long with a first stage diameter of 66 inches and weighs 78,000 pounds. (FEIS 1984). The Alpha-01 facility, and others like it, are still largely functioning off of original infrastructure from the 1960s. Walking into Moffetts capsule at Alpha-01 is like walking into the past. Hennigan at william.hennigan@time.com. Like many of her neighbors, Winyun doesnt expect the Minuteman III to ever climb out of the wheat fields on a column of rocket fire. During the Cold War, the base served as ground zero for the Air Force's nuclear arsenal, housing the nation's most powerful and sophisticated missiles from 1986 to 2005. It gives the President, the Commander in Chief, a myriad of options, and taking away a leg of the triad takes away some of those options., Thats the view from strategists who wake up and prepare for nuclear war each day. And the missile away warning protocols note that there should be no attempt to restore power to the missilea stricture that was violated in this case. John Black Jack Pershing then a captain, later the general of the armies in World War I was stationed at Ft. Russell for a time. In 1901, troops from the fort served in the Philippines. Each ICBM carries one warhead either the W87 or the W78 but could . The last MX missiles were decommissioned in September of 2005. 1989. On word of an attack by the Soviets, the missile-laden trucks would rumble off to these launchers, so the Soviets wouldnt know which ones were occupied and which ones were not. On 1 July 1963, the Air Force activated the 90th SMW. In the case of missiles, at least, this concern was overstated. Where some see a logistical nightmare, many locals see opportunity. mi. http://www.nps.gov/archive/mimi/history/srs/history.htm. After an hour on the road, the convoy pulls to a stop on a gravel road off Wyoming Highway 215. Warren Air Force Base. One is stuck to the shut-off valves that control water flow in the event of an emergency. Youngs graduating class doubled to around 90 students, while new shops, restaurants, and honky-tonks began popping up along Highway 30 in downtown Kimball. We spend a lot of time saying to ourselves, Hey, how are we going to make this work today?. It isnt just a matter of protecting the American people, its a matter of protecting the world. It holds the power to destroy civilization, but is meant as a nuclear deterrent to maintain peace and prevent war. The site is one of several former. Indeed. In February, the Pentagon postponed a long-planned ICBM test launch to avoid escalating tensions with Russia amid its war in Ukraine. Each missile carried one thermonuclear warhead, capable of delivering an explosive force known as "throw weight" of about 1.2 megatons. It was a multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicle (MIRV) with ten nuclear warheads that could be dropped within a 120-meter radius of their target. Still, safety questions continue to plague the Air Forces handling of nuclear missiles at Warren and elsewhere. 57567, Download the official NPS app before your next visit. Her articles have been published in The New York Times, Scientific American, Popular Mechanics, United Hemispheres and more. MX missile silo collapse examined in Air Force investigation report., Wyoming Senators Urge President Trump to Consider Key Factors in Review of U.S.-Russian Treaty, John Barrasso, U.S. In November 1952, the U.S. achieved a breakthrough in thermonuclear research the hydrogen bombthat promised lighter, more powerful warheads. At one time, very few people in the world could say that they had the experience of going to an underground missile alert facility, Simpson says. Between 1961 and 1967 the U.S. Air Force buried 1,000 Minuteman missiles across tens of thousands of square miles of the Great Plains. There is layer, upon layer, upon layer, upon layer, upon layer of security before they even reach our nation,Joseph Coslett,Public Affairs Officechief of operations, said while helping lead the tour of the facility. If all goes according to plan, the Air Force will transfer the site to the Wyoming State Parks & Cultural Resources agency in 2017 to ready it for public use, with an anticipated opening date of 2019. The maximum speed of a Peacekeeper was approximately 15,000 mph, and it could travel the approximately 6,000 miles east from the United States to Russia, its target. But Lt. Col. Peter Aguirre can still recall the musty smell of military-grade paint and stagnant air that defined his long stays inside one of the missile alert facilities built beneath the F. E. Warren Air Force Base near Cheyenne, Wyoming. For three decades those missiles remained underground, cloistered on constant alert, capable of delivering their payloada 1.2-megaton nuclear warheadto target in less than 30 minutes. Russell in 1867. While U.S. efforts to develop pilotless aircraft had lagged before that, the German success inspired intense new research, eventually producing about 5,000 JB-2s (JB for jet bomb). | Prospective visitors must call 48 hours in advance, and provide the following information: driver's license number and date of issue, date of birth and full name, including middle name. In most caseswell in every case so farthe light is simply a warning light that indicates a problem with the missile for which maintenance is necessary. AP By JOAN BARRON Star-Tribune staff. Johnson's family bought the missile site in the late '70s. As of 2023, the LGM-30G Minuteman III version [note 1] is the only land-based . The Wyoming Business Council heralded the project as the largest economic development investment in state history. Full operational capability was achieved in December of 1988 with a total of 50 MX missiles. The nukes were supposed to have been removed prior to sending the missiles. During the Cold War between the U.S. and the former Soviet Union, government officials began to install intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) silos in the middle of the country,. The missiles were placed in silos, the bottom of which are about 170 feet below the ground surface. (Gregory and Edwards 1988). Where Biden entertained possibly abandoning ICBMs during the 2020 campaign, the White House has endorsed the Air Forces controversial and complicated plan to replace the Minutemen III missiles with the Sentinel. Accessed Jan. 7, 2019, at, New START at a Glance, Arms Control Association. The facilities they visit can be 100 miles or more from base, and it takes a while for the work trucks to haul out there in the snow or rain, especially if that days cargo includes a hydrogen bomb. Credit - Benjamin Rasmussen for TIME. Accessed Nov. 14, 2018, at, Ground Zero, Wyoming. 29-minute Main Street, Wyoming documentary, Wyoming PBS. The most critical years of the gap, Kennedy said in his speech, would appear to be 1960-1964 our military position today is measured in terms of gaps missile gap, space gap, limited-war gap. (Goodby). The Minuteman Missile remains an iconic weapon in the American nuclear arsenal. Sign up to receive a daily email of today's top military news stories from Stars and Stripes and top news outlets But that doesnt mean it will be any less authentic. Wyoming is slated to be the first state to get the Sentinel once construction is finished. They didnt push to have the MX placed in Cheyenne, but neither did they oppose it. Presently, those nukes are divvied up between three Missile Wings with different main bases and separate security apparatuses: Francis E. Warren AFB, base of the 90 th Missile Wing next to. The photo of the protesters in Cheyenne is by longtime Wyoming Eagle photographer Francis S. Brammar, from the Brammar collection in the Wyoming State Archives. Sometimes. Senator, Wyoming, Nov. 29, 2018. The first Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) silos arrived on the Great Plains in 1959 when Atlas sites were constructed in Wyoming. The Air Force tried to do it four times, then gave up (Fallows). Philip The F. E. Warren Air Force Base was the only U.S. military base to house the missiles. When he took office in January 2021, his team began the Nuclear Posture Review, a top-to-bottom examination that every new Administration undertakes, and quickly discovered Chinas plans to expand its nuclear arsenal. A Project of the Wyoming Historical Society. That leaves the U.S. facing unappealing choices. The first missile launch facility was located in jersey shore,. was at the time associate director for the Center for Defense Information. Matsuo, and the other missileers, understand their own impact at all times. The photo of General Pershings house is from. 21 min read. Nuclear counterforce strategy emphasizes the pre-emptive destruction of an adversarys nuclear weapons before they can be launched. Smith had just returned from the field, stepping away from the Humvee to speak with the media on the importance of his role. If Biden was ever willing to accept this line of thinking, he closed the door on it as President. If a piece of equipment breaks inside Captain Kaz Dexter Moffetts underground command center at the Alpha-01 Missile Alert Facility, its marked with a paper tag that reads either warning or danger. A few of those are hanging in this cramped capsule buried about 70 ft. below the high plains of eastern Wyoming. You can hear them pretty clearly if you stand on an angle, on one leg, and jump up and down, Moffett says, smiling. The final blow to the idea was the opposition of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Salt Lake City. Air Force Capt. For now, the current ICBMs, called Minuteman IIIs, sit buried inside hardened silos at several-mile intervals across the Great Plains. The entire command capsule itself is jury-rigged on top of steel stilts because the shock-absorber system, which was first installed in 1963 to survive a thermonuclear blast, is now inoperative. A roof once sprang a leak inside the high bay hangar where Air Force personnel handle the W78 and W87 thermonuclear warheads. The museum is housed in the 1894 Post Headquarters building, one of several hundred on the base listed on the National Register. These weapons were not ready in time for deployment against Germany, but work continued on pilotless aircraft and, eventually, intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). Having something happen, even if it was clandestine, we have layer upon layer upon layer for stuff like that.. We will only go if we already know somethings on the way, but Americans dont go down without a fight, Matsuo said. In 1876, troops from Ft. Russell fought against the Sioux in the same war in which Gen. George A. Custer met his fate at the Little Big Horn. I never saw equipment like this in my life until I came down here, says Lieutenant Jessica Fileas, 32, another Air Force missileer and Moffetts shift partner on the days 24-hour alert. Carbon County School District No. Volumes of technical manuals provide guidance for maintenance crews. The assessment found Beijing planned a threefold increase in warheads to 1,000 by 2030, while simultaneously constructing hundreds of new silos capable of launching long-range ballistic missiles, potentially targeting the U.S. and its far-flung nuclear forces. With a reach of approximately 6,000 miles, the missiles served as a towering reminder to the. The Peacekeeper was eventually decommissioned as part of the bilateral Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II Treaty). The incident called into question the Air Forces safety data to the extent that the Colorado attorney generals office sued the federal government, eventually requiring a rewriting of part of the MX environmental impact statement to reflect the new information. For a generation, the U.S. triad of nuclear-capable bombers, submarines, and ICBMs has inched toward obsolescence as the nation focused on other pressing security threats like terrorism and cyberattacks. If an order ever came for Moffett, 29, to unleash the missiles under his command, the directivewhich only a U.S. President can givewould come in the form of whats called an Emergency Action Message. If a piece of equipment breaks inside Captain Kaz "Dexter" Moffett's underground command center at the Alpha-01 Missile Alert Facility, it's marked with a paper tag that . The town of Kimball, Neb. The accident spurred an improper and potentially dangerous attempt to restore power to the missile, which could have led to disaster.The skirt at the base of the missile had collapsed, the result of a failed epoxy bond. The experience left marks on missilers, too. The military contends it needs a 2.2-mile zone around each silo in case a helicopter needs to land in an emergency. At a moments notice, she must recall all the information she has acquired over the past several days and form it into the decision she makes, should it become time to act. Air Force Times.Nov. The 394 people who attended the Air Forces five town halls this spring didnt inquire about the Presidents plans or the view that their hometowns are seen as prospective sponges to absorb hydrogen bombs. The U.S. military commissioned the Peacekeeper program from 1986 to 2005. It is, however, one of the largest missile-command bases in the nation. Congress had cancelled the planned deployment of 100 missiles in 1985, primarily because of concerns over the survivability question. Other warheads are on bombs carried by aircraft, and on missiles on submarines. All Rights Reserved. F.E. Air Force teams have spend hundreds of hours working in underground silos removing and replacing weapon parts. They just might be in the safest location in the state a spot designed similar to an egg safely suspended in a shoebox. If you didnt know what you were looking for, youd likely pass Launch Facility A-05 without paying it any mind. In the end, not much happened. Air Force and Army Corps of Engineers personnel have already started fanning out across Wyoming to draw up environmental-impact studies, rights of entry, and other plans related to construction. This may be it. Should an incoming missile make contact and rattle the earth, the office would better absorb the blast and keep the missileers safe. 4, 2017. But yes, normally, theres restricted data circulating in this office, and its heavily secure. WyoHistory.org welcomes the support of the following sponsors. This doesnt stop the facilities from running the way they should. Between 1959 and 1965, more than 50,000 people migrated out of Wyoming, a population loss that was offset by an excess of births over deaths. The activity of those days is long gone. If they had to, in some extreme scenario, they are also the ones that turn the key to launch the missile. Each one supervises 10 missile silos, every one built to contain an. Equipped with up to ten warheads each, the Peacekeepers stood 71 feet high and weighed 195,000 pounds. Our success rate is very good. (Whipple 1983) But the Vandenburg launches then and now are from above-ground test launch facilities. The racetrack system idea was abandoned in 1982. Magazines, Digital Missiles, men and Armageddon., Whipple, Dan. Although the Peacekeeper cant take sole credit for the end of the Cold Warother factors were at play, including the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the Soviet Blocit was used at the bargaining table between countries. The snow covers the ground and merges with the silver sky, while the cold air seems to penetrate the thick safety-grade windows, through which clouds of horned larks skip and dance out over vast plains like one dense organism. Ronald Sega, undersecretary of the Air Force, once remarked that the weapon served as a great stabilizing force in an increasingly unstable world. But the Peacekeepers heyday didnt last: The weapons were eventually replaced with RV Minuteman III missiles at bases across the country as part of the U.S. Air Forces current ICBM program. Behind 8-ft. razor-wire fences in wheat fields, cattle pastures, and off-farm roads, 400 missiles are on hair-trigger alertready for blastoffevery moment of the day. "If new START had been in place on [the day of the failure], we would have immediately been below an acceptable level to deter threats from our enemies. Standing underground next to one of the worlds most powerful weapons during an unexpected blackout is unnerving, but the Air Force maintenance team is unmoved. It will also use an open architecture design, enabling software upgrades and other updates without requiring a complete overhaul. Advanced reservations are required for all guided-tours. Gallantry: Biden presents Medal of Honor to retired Army Col. Paris Davis for his heroics in Vietnam, US to send bridge-launching vehicles for tank deployments to Ukraine in new $400M aid package, Japan complains to US over Utah senators remarks on imprisoned Navy officer, Military, VA provide troops, vets more gun safety options to help reduce suicides, Pentagon tells service members to stop displaying giant US flags at major events, K-Town Now features the latest news from the Kaiserslautern Military Community. Here at about 1.30 am, he reported a 30 to 50ft wide UFO coming in from due North, stopping above the . In the late 19th century, it was the base for the famous Buffalo Soldiers of three African-American regiments: the 9th and 10th Cavalry, and the 24th Infantry. As plans coalesce and more workers flow in, major construction on the silos and control centers will start in 2026. Command and Control, American Experience, Tupper, Seth. No An official form of the United States government. Drivers crane their necks as the line of military vehicles zoom by. Weve already pushed the limits of this for three generations, when it was only created for one, Coslett said. The map of missile sites in the West and the image of F.E. An Air Force crew prepares to install an ICBM at a remote silo in eastern Wyoming. One facility manager, one chef, four missileers and nine security officers, all of whom make Alpha-01 their home for seven days at a time, each with specific responsibilities. Other times, an electrical adapter or connector gives out, and its been decades since anyone has seen one. The Cheyenne Chamber of Commerce created a website for state businesses to become approved suppliers for Northrop Grumman Corp., the giant defense firm that won an initial $13.3 billion contract in 2020 to lead the program after its sole competitor, Boeing Co., declined to bid. Were in the process of doing those surveys right now, Beckwith says. Warren. Warren Air Force Base in Wyoming is home to the 90th Missile Wing. There are a total of 450 silo's in the United States as per officially supplied information spread out among three main areas in the United States: around Malmstrom AFB near Great Falls Montana, around Warren AFB near Cheyenne Wyoming, and around Minot AFB near Minot North Dakota. Fort Russell eventually grew into one of the countrys largest cavalry posts.

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